Published 15 Aug 2023
What is 8D?
8D refers to the Eight Disciplines Model which is a problem-solving technique used to contain, resolve, or prevent issues identified in a product or process by quality engineers. The 8D model was initially used in the automotive industry due to Ford’s influence, but it is now widely used in a variety of industries, including manufacturing, healthcare, and retail, with great success.
In this article
- What is an 8D Report?
- 8D Format: The 8 Disciplines
- 8D Report Pros and Cons
- FAQs about 8D and 8D Reports
- Technology to Assist in 8D Reporting
- Featured 8D Report Templates
What is an 8D Report?
An 8D Report is a comprehensive method that aims to eliminate problems by identifying and attacking their root cause(s). 8D Reports can lead to preventive measures that resolve persistent issues by utilizing a combination of expertise, data analysis, management tools, and data validation.
8D Format: The 8 Disciplines
The format of an 8D template encompasses the eight disciplines of problem-solving which are:
- D1: Form a team
- D2: Define the problem
- D3: Develop a containment plan
- D4: Identify root cause and escape points
- D5: Formulate corrective actions
- D6: Implement corrective actions
- D7: Formulate preventive measures
- D8: Congratulate the team
8D Report Pros and Cons
8D report templates have helped countless businesses improve their operations with its thorough, structured approach to problem solving. However, it has prerequisites that may not appeal to smaller operations with limited resources.
8D Report Pros
8D Reports provide a long-term solution.
The 8D Model aims to eradicate the problem, not its symptoms. Once a problem has been identified, 8D takes a three-pronged approach to solving it.
The goal of a containment measure is to minimize the potential damage that can be dealt by an identified issue while a permanent, long-term solution is being formulated. In the context of manufacturing, something as simple as halting production due to a faulty machine can limit the consequences of the problem.
Once damage control is successful, the focus shifts to creating a long-term solution. This is where the 8D Team, composed of experts in different facets of the business problem, brainstorm to come up with the most sensible and sustainable solution(s) to the issue.
After effectively resolving the issue, the final step is ensuring that it doesn’t happen again. Examples of preventive measures include updating policies, introducing new SOPs, or improving quality-control standards. Using a digital checklist to perform quality and process audits will help ensure that the changes made are consistently being implemented so the issue doesn’t recur.
8D Reports address the escape point.
An “escape point” refers to the first control point in the system or process which was supposed to detect the problem, but failed. The study of escape points in an 8D form helps teams find the flaws in safety measures and fail-safes so they can be improved. How well the team identifies and rectifies the escape point is crucial to their successful use of the 8D model.
8D Reports are flexible.
The 8D Report Model has seen extensive use outside of the auto industry. Hardware manufacturing, food manufacturing, and healthcare are just a few of the many industries that have benefited from using the 8D Report Model. Here is an example of an 8D PDF used in a hospital setting.
8D Report Cons
Extensive training is needed to use it effectively.
Effective use of the 8D Model requires knowledge of the problem-solving process, as well as various data-collection and analysis tools.
An 8D training program can be tedious to develop and conduct. A dedicated budget is also required if you plan to have your team take a pre-made 8D training course.
FAQs about 8D and 8D Reports
To write an 8D report, the 8 disciplines of problem solving should be followed:
- D1 – Create a team
- D2 – Describe the problem
- D3 – Develop an interim containment plan
- D4 – Determine, Identify, and verify root cause of the problem
- D5 – Determine permanent corrective actions to solve the problem(s)
- D6 – Implement and validate corrective actions
- D7 – Take note of other additional measures to prevent recurrence of the same problem(s)
- D8 – Determine how the team can be rewarded for their efforts and to boost motivation
The 8D process usually takes four days, but may prolong depending on the complexity of the problem. At max, it is expected that 8Ds will be closed in less than 30 days.
The 8D methodology and 8D reports are triggered by a complaint, especially if these complaints relate to safety or regulatory issues, high-volume customer complaints, warranty costs, internal rejects, poor performance, etc. In some cases, 8D is used as a standard procedure as a component of quality management.
Technology to Assist in 8D Reporting
The 8D Problem Solving Model is a comprehensive technique and it is in your team’s best interest to utilize it efficiently and maximize its benefits. The solutions and preventive measures that result from the 8D Report must be based on the proper analysis of accurate data. Using a versatile data collection, analysis, and template-building app like SafetyCulture can help make 8D reporting easier, faster, and better.
Better, faster data collection
- Collect data from the field anytime with your phone or tablet, even while offline!
- Capture and annotate photos for documentation of evidence.
- Validate your findings with digital signatures.
- Save and secure your information with unlimited cloud storage.
Generate 8D reports instantly
- After completing the 8D report template, you can immediately generate a report to be shared with colleagues and stakeholders!
- Easily customize our pre-made 8D Report Template to fit your business needs.
- Export your 8D report in a variety of formats including PDF, DOC, and CSV.
Manage teams easier
- Assign and track corrective actions to team members through a single app.
- Update assigned corrective actions from your mobile device and receive notifications in real time!
- World-class 24/5 customer support to assist you with your SafetyCulture queries.
Featured 8D Report Templates
Use this 5 whys template to resolve the root cause of a problem so that your business teams can avoid encountering them again. Begin by clearly stating the problem and answer why the problem occurred until the root cause is discovered. To complete the 5 whys template, provide a solution to the root cause of the problem and create actions.
Use this root-cause analysis template to analyze a recurring problem and help eliminate the root causes. Begin by describing the issue and its impact. Next, list potential reasons why the issue happened and identify the root cause and take/attach photo evidence for verification. Provide a prevention strategy and recommend solutions before completing the RCA template with digital signatures.
A CAPA Report form is designed to help identify, address, and prevent the occurence of regulatory and organizational non-conformance. This can be used by compliance officers when formulating a corrective action to resolve the issue, and a preventive action to lower the risk of its recurrence.
A kaizen report template is used by kaizen implementers to present changes in job tasks or processes after continuous improvement efforts. This kaizen report template has been designed to make it easier for employees and management to identify any of the 8 wastes and eliminate them for increased morale, productivity, and competitiveness.
An FMEA template aims to identify potential problems in a process, product or design and prevent their adverse effects on customers. You can also customize this digital FMEA template based on your company requirements. Monitor the implementation and effectiveness of corrective actions with the use of this template.
A PPAP checklist is used by quality managers to comply with all customer specifications, manufacture conforming parts, and ship them as scheduled. This comprehensive PPAP checklist includes detailed questions for each of the 18 production part approval process guidelines—from design records to part submission warrant.
Businesses looking for problem-solving tools to aid them in identifying potential issues, implementing corrective actions, and determining preventive measures can take advantage of this ready-to-use 8D process template. This problem-solving checklist follows the sequence of the 8D report which allows users to effortlessly input the details needed when applying the 8D technique. Use this template in SafetyCulture and do the following:
- Define quality concern
- Determine team
- Develop plan
- Describe quality concern
- Determine root cause
- Develop corrective action
- Deploy corrective action
- Demonstrate correction