5S Lean: A Comprehensive Guide
Everything you need to know to start your own 5S Lean initiative
What is 5S Lean?
5S is a system and way of organizing and managing workspaces to improve efficiency by eliminating waste, improving flow and reducing process. 5S systems are common in manufacturing, warehouses, offices and hospitals but 5S principles can be applied to any workplace. Pioneered by Toyota Motor Company, the 5S method applies standard housekeeping practices in the workplace through the five principles of Sort (seiri), Set in order (seiton), Shine (seiso), Standardize (seiketsu), and Sustain (shitsuke). A cluttered and untidy workplace can lead to low productivity, worker dissatisfaction and re-occurring accidents. As one of the core principles of kaizen, 5S can help identify and eliminate wastage to achieve a more organized and safer working environment. The 5 principles of 5S Lean are explained below:
All items, equipment, and work materials should be neatly arranged and all unnecessary objects should be removed. The objective is to reduce clutter and make it easier to locate the resources needed for work.
Set in Order (Seiton)
All items, equipment, and work materials should be in optimal locations. The objective is to maximize accessibility, free up space, and prevent accidents from occurring by removing unnecessary obstacles.
The work space, including all tools, equipment, and machinery, should be cleaned on a regular basis. The objective is to make the work space safe, waste-free, and conducive to productivity.
The processes for sorting, order, and cleanliness should be standardized and implemented across all offices and branches of operation. The objective is for all aspects and branches of operation to consistently gain the benefits of practicing seiri, seiton, and seiso.
The organization should have the initiative to continuously and consistently practice the 5S methodology. The objective is to maximize the business’s potential by removing all obstacles to productivity that is within the operation’s control.
5S Lean was developed by Hiroyuki Hirano in post-war Japan, where it was famously utilized by Toyota. By integrating 5S principles into their already famous manufacturing framework dubbed the Toyota Production System or TPS, Toyota gained international prominence as a prolific producer of high-quality motor vehicles.
Largely due to Toyota’s success, companies from a variety of industries have since started integrating 5S practices into their own processes. HP, Boeing, Harley-Davidson, Nike, Caterpillar, and Ford are just a few of these examples that found success with the help of 5S Lean.
5S Lean is helpful to almost any type of operation, regardless of industry. The need to integrate 5S Lean practices, however, depends on how urgently you need to make changes for the good of your business. Here are some signs to look out for to know if you need 5S Lean help ASAP:
You are dissatisfied with your operational efficiency
Whether you feel like you’re not meeting your targets or not operating at maximum capacity, 5S Lean can help identify and eradicate inefficiencies. Using standard work practices, ergonomics, and workplace housekeeping, it will help ensure that you are making the most out of your resources.
Material, manufacturing, and/or operational costs are increasing
Companies that don’t practice 5S Lean or other similar systems may end up spending more money than necessary due to overproduction and overstocking. 5S Lean is specifically designed to optimize operations and prevent excess expenditure of company resources.
Lack of consistency in quality and output
Operational inconsistencies in quality and output are directly influenced by workplace ergonomics. Adhering to 5S Lean principles can help businesses improve operations by putting machinery, equipment, tools, and materials in optimal locations for easy access and to reduce physical obstructions. By doing so, the amount of time and energy spent locating resources are kept at a minimum, resulting in the improvement of output and quality.
An increase in customer complaints
Escalating instances of customer complaints is a red flag that businesses can’t afford to ignore. With the most common complaints being about product and service quality, 5S Lean’s workplace-centered approach can help workers focus on consistently delivering on customer expectations.
Though the majority of successful companies who use 5S are in manufacturing, 5S Lean is versatile enough to benefit just about any type of operation regardless of size and industry. Here are some general business benefits of implementing the 5S Lean methodology:
Evident in the name itself, 5S Lean aims to “trim the fat” from business operations so the relevant process and components that remain can operate at maximum capacity.
More specifically, it aims to eliminate the 7 types of waste:
By gathering sales and demand data, businesses can identify the ideal number of units to produce per production run in order to avoid wasting useful material through overproduction.
This type of waste pertains to the unnecessary steps identified in the process of transporting materials from point A to point B.
Closely tied to overproduction, this waste refers to unused materials and unsold products that are taking up space and possibly costing the business extra on warehousing fees.
Motion refers to inefficient movements routinely performed by machines or employees. This may mean recalibrating machines to optimize actions, replacing old machines with new ones, and/or updating SOPs to make employees more efficient.
This is the idle time in between two steps of a process brought about by a failure to synchronize. Ideally, operations should find a way to have independent processes happen simultaneously or “in sync” to maximize work efficiency.
This refers to putting unnecessary features and embellishments on products that provide no real value to customers.
These are costly errors that demand a significant amount of time and resources to fix. By creating and implementing an SOP based on best practices and utilizing contingencies such as a CAPA Report, businesses can reduce the likelihood of defects and be ready to react with a fix in the event that one does occur.
Through the successful reduction of waste, productivity is naturally improved. Purchasing only the necessary equipment, materials, and tools ensure that workers spend less time sorting and setting up, and more time producing. Reviewing old processes and optimizing them for efficiency means you get more work done in less time.
A Safer Workplace
Another side-effect of a “lean” workplace is improved safety. Having a well organized and clutter-free working space lowers the risk of accidents such as slips and trips, toppling or falling objects, and exposure to hazardous materials.
Knowing where to start, especially when applying a new framework, can be daunting. Here are some basic steps you can take to start practicing 5S Lean in your business:
- Triage issues in operations
To make your starting point easier to identify, make a list of the current operational issues plaguing your business and list them by level of urgency. This will help identify aspects that can either be solved or partially remedied through the 5S principles of sorting, setting in order, shining or cleaning, standardizing, and sustaining.
- Be aware of available resources
To maximize the potential benefit to your company, you need to be aware of your available resources for 5S Lean application. Knowing what you have at your disposal allows you to determine the amount of time, effort, material resources, and people you can afford to commit to 5S practices.
- Create a checklist
After having identified the issues in step 1 and knowing the resources you can work with in step 2, create a checklist to ensure that what can be done is being done. It doesn’t have to be overly complicated and riddled with unnecessary details, either. A simple checklist only needs to include two things: what needs to be done and a yes or no field to indicate completion.
Aside from helping workers stay more organized, a checklist also motivates them to be more productive. Supervisors and managers also benefit from using checklists because the simple breakdown of tasks boosts their confidence in delegation.
- Proceed with 5S Lean program execution
The previous steps serve to keep your focus on the end goal, which is to maximize your business potential. The final step focuses on putting your plans into action. As you execute your 5S program, make sure to take note of complications and other factors that you were not able to anticipate during the planning stage. This can help you prepare contingencies for future application and streamline your transition into a 5S-centric operation.
Knowing the basic principles of 5S as discussed above sets you up for Lean success. Having a sample 5S Lean Plan to guide you will help make your first implementation as seamless as possible.
Remove machinery, equipment, tools, and materials that are not used at least once a week from all work desks, production floors, and areas of operation. These items should be marked with a tag and moved to a designated area where they will remain for 7 days, at which time personnel can go through the items and reclaim the ones that are still needed in the performance of work.
All unclaimed items at the expiration of the time frame will be disposed of.
The tag attached to each equipment or item must provide the following information:
S2 – Shine
Begin by eliminating existing dust, dirt, and debris in all work desks and other areas of operation. Hire a third-party cleaning and maintenance company with good reviews to ensure that proper cleaning procedures are utilized and work equipment and areas are safe from damage. Assign a company supervisor to oversee cleaning procedures and ensure that all equipment, tools, materials, amenities, and storage areas are adequately cleaned and tidy.
Next, identify sources of dust, dirt, and debris and work on minimizing or eradicating them, if possible. For example, if dust accumulates in the office too quickly, have the HVAC filters checked as they may need cleaning or replacement.
Finally, create protocols such as a regular cleaning schedule in order to maintain cleanliness in the workplace.
Items to note:
S3 – Set in Order
Start with identifying the ideal, ergonomic location for specific machinery, equipment, materials, and tools. Some factors to consider would be the distance between two machines that are used in sequence or the distance between the material stock room and the production floor. The objective is to put facilities in their most sensible locations in order to maximize work efficiency.
Next, brainstorm with key stakeholders to figure out if the suggested changes are feasible. Discuss logistics, time and budget constraints, room layouts, etc.
Take pictures of the work area before implementing approved plans and track work improvements to properly measure the impact of changes made.
Items to note:
Use a checklist to evaluate the impact of the changes made after an agreed upon time frame.
S4 – Standardize
The first three steps of sorting, shining, and setting in order introduce new practices that aim to revitalize a workplace through ergonomics and organization. The fourth step is concerned with taking successful experiments and standardizing them across the business.
Start by holding a meeting with key stakeholders and assigning personnel to be in charge of standardization across departments and shifts. Ideally, they should be department managers and/or supervisors.
Once S4 Leaders have been established, proceed with the meeting to come up with a protocol as to how the standardization of the new processes will be implemented. Below are the items to address:
Items to note:
Coordinate with the ISO coordinator or compliance officer to make sure that all updates and changes stay compliant with ISO standards.
After standardization has been implemented, send an email blast to all stakeholders and concerned parties to ensure that everyone is updated on the new standard.
S5 – Sustain
S5 is concerned with maintaining the positive effects generated by S1 to S4. This section will focus on using S5 mainly as an auditing initiative to ensure that the newly imposed standards are being followed consistently.
Items to note:
Initially gaining popularity through its usage in improving manufacturing processes, companies outside of the manufacturing industry discovered that the 5S methodology was versatile enough to be used for other types of business operations. Below are some of the top industries that benefit from the 5S methodology.
Developed by Sakichi Toyoda in the 70s and integrated into the TPS (Toyota Production System), 5S helped make Toyota one of the top automobile manufacturers in the world. In both their assembly plants and offices, materials used for work are easily accessible and working space is maximized by designating areas for furniture, equipment, and fixtures. Toyota also uses plenty of checklists to ensure that all 5S activities are performed consistently. Due to Toyota’s success, 5S became a standard for manufacturing companies striving to maximize their potential.
In hospitals and medical practices, 5S Lean can be used to promote orderliness, ensure proper labeling of medicine and paraphernalia, and improve overall patient safety. The 5S approach also increases the operational efficiency of medical establishments as it makes it easier for employees to perform their work in an optimized and clutter-free environment.
5S Lean is a perfect fit for the retail industry since it promotes sorting and organization, two elements that benefit both retail workers and prospective customers. Seiri is applied to sort stocks in the store room so workers can easily find specific items, and it can also be applied to display racks to make sure customers can find what they’re looking for without issue. Seiton is applied by labeling stock and equipment for easy identification and placing them in optimal locations for quick access. Seiso is applied to keep the store and stocks clean and well maintained, while Seiketsu and Shitsuke are applied by implementing standards and protocols via training to ensure that quality is maintained across all branches at all times.
The goals of hotels, restaurants, resorts, and other businesses in the hospitality sector naturally align with 5S principles. Organization, order, cleanliness, and consistency—qualities customers look for in a hospitality setting—are achieved through the 5S methodology. Integrating 5S principles within the culture of hospitality businesses improves operational efficiency, maximizes resources, and increases overall customer satisfaction.
Computers and Technology
Hewlett-Packard’s Computer Systems Division uses 5S to make system building more efficient. Having computer parts sorted, properly labeled, and stored in easily accessible areas make manufacturing faster and easier. Additionally, 5S can also be used to streamline work in software. Marking frequently used tools to make them easily accessible saves time and promotes increased productivity, and standardizing work practices can keep employee performance consistent across different offices and shifts.
Schools need to create a pleasant environment conducive to learning in order to be effective. Classrooms benefit from 5S Lean by removing all unnecessary items from the classroom including excess seats, tables, cabinets, and materials, to help students focus. Afterwards, setting the remaining furniture and fixtures in order can maximize space and provide sufficient room for all students. Lastly, 5S provides a framework to sustain the optimal learning environment that it sets for each classroom.
General Office Setting
Regardless of industry, almost all businesses have an operations center that takes care of the business function from behind the scenes. Offices that do not practice 5S Lean or a similar methodology often have cluttered desks and storage rooms, as well as untidy work areas, materials, and equipment. This kind of work environment hurts productivity, and unintentionally promotes wasteful use of resources. Removing unnecessary items and applying 5s in the workplace can boost efficiency and even bring down operational costs.