This article guides you through the basics of a decision matrix: definition, types, usage, and tips for making your own.
Published 28 Apr 2022
A decision matrix is a tool used to assess and choose the best option among different choices. It analyzes several options using multiple criteria with varying levels of importance. By outlining the benchmarks and weighing them in order of importance, teams can pursue the best course of action.
A decision matrix helps in:
Like any method, a decision matrix works best when used the right way. Teams can maximize the capabilities of a decision-making matrix when:
This matrix works best for situations that require only one option to work on, such as deciding on which new product to release. It also works for singling out the best solution to a pressing problem at the workplace.
This section shows a step-by-step guide on creating a decision matrix. It follows the standard format for a weighted decision matrix.
Start building a decision matrix by drafting a list of the choices you will decide between. For example, jot down the suppliers you want to work with for an infrastructure project.
Make this step easier by asking for the team’s input beforehand or brainstorming the options during team meetings.
The next step is to write down the factors crucial to the decision. It’s best to include factors crucial in deciding the best route. Having a set of criteria helps you select the best option and avoid subjectivity in decision-making.
If the criteria pool is too long, filter the list to a smaller number of top priorities using multi-voting and list reduction tools.
After consolidating the choices and factors to consider, you can start building the decision matrix. Its tabular structure allows you to see various possibilities when weighing options.
First, fill in the top row with the options. Then, write down the criteria for decision-making in the columns. It should look like Table 1.
Table 1. Initial Skeleton of the Decision Matrix
The next step after building the skeleton of the decision matrix is adding weight to each factor. This part quantifies how important a criterion is to the final decision.
You can rank each factor according to the number of considerations they have. A classic example is using the 1-5 scale, with 5 being the most important factor and 1 being the least important one.
Table 2 shows what the decision matrix will look like after this new addition.
Table 2. Decision Matrix with Assigned Weight
After ranking each factor, you must weigh each option against the criteria. Ask yourself: how does your selection pool measure against the essential aspects of your final decision?
Listed below are examples of ranges when rating each alternative against a set of criteria:
After rating all the options, you must multiply the score by the assigned weight in Step 4. The resulting numbers will show the weighted score—that is, the rating of each option in relation to the established criteria.
Lastly, once the weighted scores are complete, it’s time to combine the scores. Find the total score by adding the weighted points of each option. The alternative with the highest number of points becomes your best route based on your criteria.
Do note that the final decision remains in your hands. This decision matrix is simply a tool that will help you select the best choice if you want to evaluate your options objectively.
Here’s an example to better illustrate how a decision matrix works.
In this situation, you’re a project manager who needs to hire a construction agency for a commercial building project. To deliver this project successfully, you’re looking for the following things in an agency from most to least important:
You have narrowed your options to Agency 1, Agency 2, and Agency 3. If you plot these options on a decision matrix, here’s what they would look like:
Table 3. Initial Decision Matrix Example
After weeks of researching, here’s what you found about the three construction agencies:
For this decision matrix, you will use the following scales:
Using the information listed in this section, observe the initial scores in Table 4.
Table 4. Decision Matrix Example with Initial Scores
However, the computation doesn’t stop here. You need to multiply the weight by the points, as mentioned in Step 6. The resulting weighted scores are highlighted in Table 5.
Table 5. Decision Matrix Example with Weighted Scores
After calculating the weighted scores, it’s time to sum them up. Table 6 shows how it’s done.
Table 6. Decision Matrix Example with Total Scores
Upon adding the total score, Agency 3 emerges as the best option for the company with a total of 26 points.
Aside from the weighted decision matrix, teams can also explore two more types of decision matrices: the Pugh Decision Matrix and the Eisenhower Decision Matrix.
The Pugh Decision Matrix is a tool devised by Scottish scientist Dr. Stuart Pugh to formalize the decision-making process. It lets teams choose one improvement opportunity to pursue by evaluating them with each other.
This matrix follows the same steps as the decision matrix above but with a difference in Step 5. Instead of a scale of 1 to 5, it sets a baseline and rates each option against it as Better (+), Same (0 or s), or Worse (-). Table 7 shows an example of this rating system.
Table 7. Pugh Decision Matrix
The Eisenhower Decision Matrix was designed by former United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower. This decision-making matrix, also known as the Urgent-Important Matrix, helped him arrange his tasks and make tough decisions during his term.
True to its name, the Eisenhower Decision Matrix helps sort tasks by urgency and importance. By working in this order, people can maximize their productivity.
This matrix, as shown below, consists of four quadrants:
Eisenhower Decision Matrix
A decision matrix is a great tool to visualize how options weigh against each other given a set of criteria. To maximize its effectiveness, here are some tips you can follow:
Digital platforms such as iAuditor by SafetyCulture can simplify your decision-making process. iAuditor has all the tools you need to streamline your efforts in making critical decisions for your organization. With iAuditor, you can perform the following tasks:
Leizel Estrellas is a content writer and researcher for SafetyCulture. Her academic and professional training as a researcher allows her to write meaningful articles that create a lasting impact. As a content specialist, she strives to promote a culture of safety in the workplace through accessible and reader-friendly content. With her high-quality work, she is keen on helping businesses across industries identify issues and opportunities to improve every day.
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