Learn more about the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard for lockout tagout: devices, steps, and core components of a lockout tagout program
Published 28 Apr 2022
Lockout tagout is a protection system against unintentional exposure to hazardous energy from equipment and machinery. A lockout device, such as a padlock, secures the energy isolating device while a tagout device (i.e. a tag) warns employees not to use the equipment.
The difference between lock out and tag out is the device used. The lockout device stops employees from operating the equipment while the tagout device informs them that the equipment should not be operated. Essentially, a tagout device is the second layer of protection against unsafe equipment operation while a lockout device is the first layer.
Though the machine guarding standard covers exposure to hazardous energy during normal production operations, it is important to remember that the OSHA lockout tagout standard (instead of the machine guarding standard) will apply during normal production operations if:
The OSHA lockout tagout standard generally applies to any activity in which the sudden energization or startup of equipment and machinery could harm employees.
From October 2020 to September 2021, the OSHA lockout tagout standard has had 1,440 citations amounting to a total penalty of $9,369,143. This means that the average penalty for a lockout tagout citation is $6,506. To avoid incurring such penalties for one of the most violated OSHA standard, safety supervisors need to be aware of common OSHA lockout/tagout violations such as:
Aside from the safety supervisor who is responsible for lockout tagout, other key personnel involved are authorized and affected employees.
Employers are required by the OSHA standard to provide lockout tagout devices that are durable, standardized, substantial, and identifiable. LOTO devices cannot be reused. The following information is primarily based on the OSHA lockout tagout standard:
Energy Isolating Device
An energy isolating device is a mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release of hazardous energy. Examples of energy isolating devices are:
Energy isolating devices DO NOT INCLUDE push buttons, selector switches, and other control circuit type devices.
A lockout device is a device that utilizes a positive means to hold an energy isolating device in a safe position and prevents the energization of equipment and machinery. Examples of lockout devices are padlocks, blank flanges, and bolted slip blinds.
A LOTO padlock should only have one key. Lockout locks should not be keyed alike, in which multiple padlocks can be opened with one key. If the use of keyed alike locks cannot be avoided, limit their distribution among employees.
A tagout device is a prominent warning device that can be securely fastened to an energy isolating device and indicates that both the equipment and the energy isolating device cannot be operated. The only example of a tagout device is a tag and its means of attachment to the energy isolating device.
Also known as a lockbox or a group lockout box, a LOTO box is used when equipment has several isolation points that need to be secured (with their own energy isolating, lockout, and tagout devices) before it can be locked out. This is referred to as a group lockout or a group isolation.
After completing a LOTO procedure on an isolation point, the employee will place the key to the lockout device in the lockbox and then attach their own personal padlock to the lockbox. After all personal padlocks have been attached to the lockbox, the group isolator will then place an orange or blue lock and an orange tag on equipment to indicate that all isolation points have been secured.
Though OSHA has not yet provided a standardized color coding system for lockout locks and tags, typical color codes are:
Authorized employees must complete the 15 lockout tagout steps in order.
The safety supervisor can remove the lock, provided that:
After removing the lock, the safety supervisor must also contact the employee to inform them the lock has been removed and must confirm that the employee is aware of this before they resume work at the facility.
To be OSHA-compliant, a lockout tagout program must have 3 core components:
Safety supervisors need to create equipment-specific LOTO procedures that outline the scope, purpose, authorization, rules, techniques, and means to enforce compliance. Each lock out tag out procedure must include the following, at the minimum:
A LOTO inspection can only be conducted by a safety supervisor or authorized employee who is NOT involved in the lock out tag out procedure being inspected. To conduct a LOTO inspection, the safety supervisor or authorized employee must do the following:
LOTO inspections must be conducted at least annually or more often if necessary.
Since lockout tagouts have different levels of access, there are also different levels of training required for each type of access:
There is no OSHA requirement for the frequency of training, though retraining is necessary under certain conditions. Both lock out tag out training and retraining require certification.
To go beyond compliance and truly build a robust lockout tagout program, safety supervisors must actively promote and sustain LOTO safety by doing the following:
Develop a lock out tag out policy by coordinating with the head of the facility and asking employees for their input. While primary collaboration is with the head of the facility or your employer, you should also obtain clarification from employees regarding their concerns, especially about equipment safety.
Once the lock out tag out policy has been formalized and established, ensure that all employees working in the facility have received copies of it. Hold an orientation to discuss the details of the policy and answer any questions that the employees may have.
Aside from official LOTO inspection reports, informal LOTO reporting is also useful for promoting LOTO safety. Employees should have the means to inform you if lockout tagout devices are missing or if equipment’s energy levels remain hazardous. At the same time, you should also find a way to confirm that LOTO procedures are being followed and respond to urgent issues quickly.
Unlike a LOTO inspection which is done at least once a year and focuses on a specific LOTO procedure, a LOTO audit is an evaluation of the LOTO safety of the facility. This can include inspecting the various equipment and machines to which the OSHA lockout tagout standard applies and the lockout tagout devices used in the facility.
Ensure that everything related to lockout tagout is documented. This includes the lock out tag out policy, procedures, inspections, training, reports, and audits. For a centralized database of all lockout tagout information, consider using digital documents instead of paper. Though paper may be what you are used to, it is highly inefficient to use paper documents in the long-term, especially if you want to form a sustainable lockout tagout program.
iAuditor by SafetyCulture is a digital safety platform with features for lockout tagout:
Get started with iAuditor for free.
The OSHA lockout tagout checklist allows you to check the following:
The lockout tagout procedure template contains the following elements:
Zarina is a content writer and researcher for SafetyCulture. She enjoys discovering new ways for businesses to improve their safety, quality, and operations. She is working towards helping companies become more efficient and better equipped to thrive through change.
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